C. Daiv
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THE SEX SPECTRUM: Possible causes and solutions

Human sexuality refers to the way people experience and express themselves sexually. It varies according to an individuals sexual orientation. Sexual orientation on the other hand is their pattern of sexual interests in opposite or same sex.

Some of the human sexual Orientation includes; straight, gay, bisexual, (omnisexual / pansexual) etc.


One of the meanings of straight according to Merriam Webster dictionary is exhibiting no deviation from what is established or accepted as usual, normal, or proper.

This explains why it was used as a sexual orientation.

It is a term that identifies a heterosexual  individual. Someone having a sexual orientation to persons of the opposite sex.


Is a term that identifies people who are sexually attracted to same sex.

It refers to individuals that practice homosexuality. The term lately is commonly used among guys who are sexually attracted to to fellow guys. Girls that are sexually attracted to fellow girls practice lesbianism.


Refers to individuals who possess the characters of both sexes.

It is a term common to individuals who are sexually attracted to both sexes.


Pansexuality, or omnisexuality, is the sexual, romantic or emotional attraction towards people regardless of their sex or gender identity. Pansexual people may refer to themselves as gender-blind, asserting that gender and sex are not determining factors in their romantic or sexual attraction to others.

Pansexual is a more advanced form of bisexual; individuals under pansexual are open to relationships with people who are not strictly men or women there by creating a distinct sexual orientation that rejects binary or labels. They see sex as a broad range of activities or ideas (the sex spectrum) and as such are ready to experience anything irrespective of the gender or gender identity.

The possible causes or what determines an individual’s sexual orientation according to this piece includes;

1. Nature

2. Nurture

3. Cognitive processes


Nature in this context refers to those natural occurrences that affects human sexual orientation.

The top factor here includes;

Gender Dysphoria

Gender dysphoria (formerly known as gender identity disorder) is defined by strong, persistent feelings of identification with another gender and discomfort with one’s own assigned gender and sex; in order to qualify for a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, these feelings must cause significant distress or impairment. People with gender dysphoria often desire to live in accordance with their gender identity and may dress and use mannerisms associated with the gender with which they identify in order to achieve this goal.

Both gender identity issues and feelings of dysphoria may manifest in a variety of different ways. A person with female sex characteristics, for example, may privately identify as a man, but continue to publicly present themselves as a woman. Another may choose to dress in clothes associated with the gender with which they identify, while yet another may seek hormone treatment or surgery as part of a transition to living full-time as the gender with which they identify. Each of these individuals may—or may not—experience significant feelings of distress or impairment as a result of their gender identity concerns.

Adults with gender dysphoria typically feel uncomfortable being regarded by others as their assigned gender and often desire to be rid of the physical sex characteristics associated with it.


The causes of gender dysphoria are currently unknown, but genes, hormonal influences in the womb, and environmental factors are all suspected to be involved.


This refers to the properties acquired as a consequence of the way you were treated as a child Some of the factors here includes Oedipus complex and Electra complex

Oedipus complex (boys) The most important aspect of the phallic stage in Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development. This is one of Freud’s most controversial ideas which states that boys are sexually attracted to their mother between the age of 3 to 5.

They resolve this problem by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviors.  This is called identification.

Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes, and behaviors of another person. The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values that become the superego.

Electra complex (girls) Just like Oedipus complex in boys, girls desire their father between the age of 3 to 5. This is also resolved by means of identification. The girl identifies with the mother to take on the female gender role.

When Oedipus complex in boys and Electra complex in girls are resolved the sexual orientation you get is STRAIGHT

NOTE: if Oedipus complex is not resolved in boys, they will not adopt male gender role and if Electra complex is not resolved in girls. They will not adopt female gender role.

The outcome of unresolved Oedipus complex in boys is that the boy adopts female gender role and the outcome of unresolved Electra complex in girls is that the girl adopts male gender role.

When this happens, the sexual orientation you get is GAY


This refers to the outcome of our thoughts. Some of the individuals that are gay, bisexual or pansexual acquired such sexual orientation as a result of their cognitive processes and not neither because of hormonal imbalance nor unresolved Oedipus complex and Electra complex respectively.

This is probably the  only possible explanation to pansexual or omnisexual human sexual orientation. Hormonal imbalance can cause gay and bisexual but can’t cause pansexual as pansexual is a more advanced form of bisexual.

For Symptoms, diagnosis and treatments of Gender Dysphoria. click below link


For more details on Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development, click below link

Sigmund Freud Psychosexual stages of development

Compiled by C. Daiv in response to a topic submitted by a student

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